Christian Downie is a political scientist and professor at the Australian National University, where he researches climate and energy politics. He is also the author of Business Battles in the U.S. Energy Sector. His recent paper with co-author Robert Brulle in the journal Climatic Change traces how fossil fuel trade associations in the U.S. are investing billions of dollars on political activities.

OptOut Climate spoke with Downie about how these trade groups obstruct climate action.

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